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The main article in this book explores important issues related to understanding, development, and application of the term ‘Civil State’ from an Islamic perspective. It identifies and discusses two pillars of the Civil Sate namely citizenship under which all citizens have equal rights and duties, and the popular will, which denotes the right of citizens to choose their ruler.

It concludes by emphasizing that the Islamic state is civil by nature but must comply with Sharia laws.
The respondent to the main article addresses the topic of Islam, Civil Society and the State particularly in the post-independence era, post-Gulf War, and post-Arab Awakening world. He put the notion of ‘civil state’ in a broader context emphasizing the critical issue in Muslim politics today, which is religious and political pluralism.

Then, he stresses on the concept of tolerance. The respondent concludes by highlighting the importance of the role of Muslim intellectuals and leaders to reexamine and reinterpret their faith in light of modern realities, and debate critical questions on political liberalization, democratization, pluralism, the rights of women and minorities, the role of Sharia in a Muslim civil state, and freedom of speech and religion.

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